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Abelson, Harold, diSessa, Andera, 1968, Turtle Geometry, MIT Press, pp. 37-39, 120-122

Dixon, Robert, 1987, Mathographics, Dover Publications, Inc., p. 152

Gardner, Martin, 1986, Knotted Doughnuts and Other Mathematical Entertainments, W. H. Freemand and Company, pp. 205-208

Krawczyk, Robert, 2001, " Curving Spirolaterals", Bridges 2001, Mathematical Connections in Art, Music, and Science, Winfield, Kansas, July, 2001

Krawczyk, Robert, 2000, " The Art of Spirolaterals", MOSAIC 2000, Millennial Open Symposium on the Arts and Interdisiciplinary Computing, Seattle, Washington, August, 2000

Krawczyk, Robert, 2000, "The Art of Spirolateral Reversals", ISAMA 2000, Conference of The International Society of the Arts, Mathematics and Architecture, Albany, New York, June, 2000 

Krawczyk, Robert, 1999, “Spirolaterals, Complexity from Simplicity”, ISAMA 1999, Conference of The International Society of Arts, Mathematics and Architecture, edited by N. Friedman and J. Barrallo, The University of the Basque Country, pp. 293-299

Lawrence, J. Dennis, 1972, A Catalog of Special Curves, Dover Publications, Inc., p. 43

Odds, Frank, “Spirolaterals”, Mathematics Teacher, February 1973, pp. 121-124

All the Krawczyk papers are available in PDF format at:


BitArt, Robert J. Krawczyk
5120 W. Wilson Ave., Chicago, IL 60630

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